While a detailed study of mammals was not undertaken as part of the Folio background series some basic information has been gathered in this chapter in response to queries by local people and other interested persons. The chapter has four sections. The first section provides an introduction and brief account of historical records and research. The second presents a list of mammal species recorded in Haldimand-Norfolk. The third describes the distribution of vulnerable, rare, and threatened species recorded at Long Point. The fourth section reports on research being undertaken by the Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS) and the Long Point Bird Observatory (LPBO) on deer populations on the Long Point peninsula, as well as on culling, and monitoring of vegetation change after the cull of browsing deer. Much of the information is based on the Haldimand-Norfolk Natural Areas Inventory (NAI) (Gartshore et al, 1987).
Some of the rarer species on Long Point and in the immediate mainland are discussed in the following sections.
|Common Name||Scientific Name (1)||Regional Status (2)||Provincial Status (3)||Canadian Status (4)|
|Virginia Opossum||Didelphis virginiana||common, increasing||common||-|
|Cinereus or Masked Shrew||Sorex cinereus||common||common||-|
|Smoky Shrew||Sorex fumeus||common||very common||-|
|Northern Short-tailed Shrew||Blarina brevicauda||very common||very common||-|
|Least Shrew||Crytotis parva||RR||historical||-|
|Hairy-tailed Mole||Parascalops breweri||uncommon||common||-|
|Star-nosed Mole||Condylura cristata||common||very rare to rare||-|
|Little Brown Myotis||Myotis lucifugus||common||very common||-|
|Small-footed Bat||Myotis leibii||unsubstantiated||very common||-|
|Northern Long-eared Myotis||Myotis septentrionalis||common||rare||-|
|Silver-haired Bat||Lasinycteris noctivagans||migrant||common||-|
|Eastern Pipistrelle||Pipistrellus subflavus||RR||rare to common||-|
|Big Brown Bat||Eptesicus fuscus||common||very common||-|
|Hoary Bat||Lasiurus cinereus||uncommon||common||-|
|Eastern Cottontail||Sylvilagus floridanus||common||very common||-|
|Snowshoe Hare||Lepus americanus||extirpated||very common||-|
|European Hare||Lepus europaeus||common, introduced||Exotic||-|
|Eastern Chipmunk||Tamias striatus||common||very common||-|
|Woodchuck||Marmota monax||common||very common||-|
|Grey Squirrel||Sciurus carolinensis||common||very common||-|
|Red Squirrel||Tamiasciurus hudsonicus||common||very common||-|
|Southern Flyign Squirrel||Glaucomys volans||common||rare to uncommon (MNR - vul)||vul|
|Beaver||Castor canadensis||uncommon, increasing||very common||-|
|White-footed mouse||Peromyscus leucopus||common||very common||-|
|Prairie Deer Mouse||Peromyscus maniculatus bairdit||common||very common||-|
|Southern Bog Lemming||Synaptomys cooperi||RR||common to very common|
|Muskrat||Ondatra zibethicus||common||very common||-|
|Woodland Vole||microtus pinetorum||common||rare to common||-|
|Meadow Vole||Microtus pennsylanicus||abundant||very common||-|
|Norway Rat||Rattus norveficus||introduced, common||Exotic||-|
|House Mouse||Mus musculus||introduced, common||Exotic||-|
|Meadow Jumping Mouse||Zapus hundonius||common||very common||-|
|Porcupine||Erethizon dorsatum||hypothetical||very common||-|
|Timber Wolf||Canis lupus||Extirpated||common||-|
|Coyote||Canis latrans||common, formerly absent||very common||-|
|Red Fox||Vulpes vulpes||common||very common||-|
|Grey Fox||Urocyon cinereoargenteus||RR||very rare MNR (vul)||vul|
|Raccoon||Procyon lotor||common||very common||-|
|Black Bear||Ursus americanus||Extirpated||very common||-|
|Ermine||Mustela erminea||hypothetical||very common||-|
|Long-Tailed Weasel||Mustela frenata||common||common to very common||-|
|Mink||Mustela vison||common||very rare to rare||-|
|Badger||Taxidea taxus||rare||very common||vul|
|Striped Skunk||Mephitis mephitis||common||very common||-|
|River Otter||Lutra canadensis||RR||very common||-|
|Lynx||Lynx canadensis||RR||very common|
|Bobcat||Lynx rufus||extirpated||rare to uncommon/common||-|
|Wapiti (Eastern Elk)||Cervus elaphus||extinct||extirpated (MNR ext.)||-|
2 The status of each species in the region is provided from Gartshore, (1987). A species was designated as "abundant" if over 100 observations of it had been made in the region since 1972, "common" if 25-100 observations had been made, "uncommon" if 5-25 observations had been made, and "regionally rare" (RR) if 1- 5 observations had been made.
4 The status of each species in Canada is provided from Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) (1994).
The Eastern Pipistrelle is found throughout the eastern half of the US, north to the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River (Dobbyn, 1994). It has the southernmost distribution of any bat in Ontario (Figure 2). The Eastern Pipistrelle is most commonly found along the north shores of Lakes Ontario and Erie, and from Kingston to Renfrew in the Southeast (Dobbyn, 1994). In Haldimand-Norfolk the only records are three individuals captured during the Natural Areas Inventory in Backus Woods and Spooky Hollow (Gartshore, 1987).
Southern Flying Squirrels occupy deciduous forests throughout eastern North America (Dobbyn, 1994). In Ontario, they are most commonly found in the Carolinian Forests north of Lake Erie, but can occasionally be found throughout the rest of southern Ontario, north to Deep River and Parry Sound District (Dobbyn, 1994) (Figure 3). The Southern Flying Squirrel was first documented in the Long Point region by Pope in the mid-1800s (Gartshore, 1987). Landon (1941) (in Gartshore, 1987) indicated that flying squirrels were never plentiful and may have dwindled in the first part of this century as a direct result of the cutting of mature forests. Haldimand-Norfolk is thought to have the largest and most stable population of Southern Flying Squirrels within the Carolinian zone (Gartshore, 1987). Recently, the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources designated it a rare species because of its close association with the disappearing Carolinian Forest region.
The Woodland Vole's North American range covers the eastern half of the US, and southwestern Ontario (Dobbyn, 1994). In Ontario, the first Woodland Vole was collected by H. Beck in 1902 (Saunders, 1932 in Gartshore, 1987) (Figure 4). It is now known from Middlesex, Elgin, Wentworth, Halton, Welland and Haldimand-Norfolk (ROM, Jameson, 1943 in Gartshore, 1987). Dobbyn (1994) indicated that the Woodland Vole's distribution in Ontario appears to be closely associated with the mature deciduous forests along Lake Erie where there is loose sandy soil and deep humus suitable for burrowing. In the Long Point area, specimens have been collected from Port Rowan, Nanticoke and Spooky Hollow (ROM, Campbell 1979 in Gartshore, 1987). During the Natural Areas Inventory of Haldimand-Norfolk, Woodland Voles were recorded in most habitats but tended to prefer mesic, mixed or dry deciduous woodlands (Gartshore, 1987).
The Gray Fox is a southern mammal found throughout most of the United States (Dobbyn, 1994). In Canada, the Gray Fox range is restricted to southern Ontario and the west Lake Superior area (Dobbyn, 1994) (Figure 5). The Gray Fox occupied southern Ontario during presettlement days as is evidenced by remains found in three Indian village sites (Downing, 1946 in Gartshore, 1987). It is thought to have disappeared shortly after Europeans arrived and did not move into Ontario again until the 1930s (Gartshore, 1987). In the Long Point area there are several records of Gray Foxes around the Grand River marshes area, north of the Waterford Ponds (Conc. Rd VI) and north of Cultus at Concession 8 (Gartshore, 1987).
Badgers can be found throughout the western half of the US and parts of the Canadian Prairies (Dobbyn, 1994). It is a mammal of the open grasslands. In Ontario, Badgers are known from the Rainy River area and southwestern Ontario (Gartshore, 1987). Banfield (1974); in Gartshore, (1987) reported 30 substantiated records of Badgers in southern Ontario between 1972 and 1980. These records were from Waterloo and Haldimand-Norfolk Regional Municipalities, and Kent Co., Lambton Co., Middlesex Co. and Grey Co. In Haldimand-Norfolk there are numerous records of badgers, the earliest being in 1934. The Natural Areas Inventory (NAI) (Gartshore et al, 1987) recorded this species twice in Deer Creek Valley in 1986. In Haldimand - Norfolk Badgers occur in rolling sand country in fields and forest.
The earliest records of explorers at Long Point indicate that White-tailed Deer were present both in the Norfolk area and on the Long Point sand spit (McCullough and Robinson, 1988). Two French missionaries, de Casson and de Galinee, reported shooting deer while camped at the base of the peninsula in 1669 (McCullough and Robinson, 1988). Before 1870, White-tailed Deer were extirpated from Long Point by over- hunting (Snyder, 1931). In 1874, the Long Point Company stocked their land with 15 deer, in 1886 with 4 deer from Minnesota, and with two additional bucks from Rondeau in 1908 (CWS, 1988). Deer were also released on the Anderson property in 1881 (Heffernan 1978 in CWS, 1988).
While no accurate record of the number of stocked deer exists, by 1890 deer had greatly increased in numbers (McCullough and Robinson, 1988). Studies conducted between 1967 and 1988 estimated deer populations between 375 and 550 on Long Point peninsula (Table 2). These estimates represent densities of deer between 17.4 and 25.5 /km2.
|Bailey (1976)||1967||550||25.5/km squared|
|Bailey (1976)||1968||539||25.0/km squared|
|Smith (1976)||1971||400||18.5/km squared|
|CWS (1985)||1985||375||17.4/kn squared|
|CWS (1986)||1986||457||22.0/km squared|
|CWS (1988)||1988||500||22.7/km squared|
During the fall and winter of 1989-1990 and 1990-1991, the Canadian Wildlife Service organized the culling of approximately 500 White-tailed Deer from Long Point. In the fall of 1994, an additional 42 deer were removed. In 1991 a long-term monitoring study was established by the Long Point Bird Observatory in co-operation with the Canadian Wildlife Service to document vegetation and breeding bird communities following the removal of deer. This study involved 150 vegetation plots and was repeated in 1992, 1993, 1994 and 1995 (Bradstreet and Bowles, 1995).
Numbers of tree and shrub stems have increased apparently in response to a reduction in browsing in the five years since deer removal (Figure 7).
A number of species have flourished since the arrival of Europeans, mostly habitat generalists such as Red Fox, Raccoons, and White-tailed Deer. White-tailed Deer in particular have the potential to expand their populations and their effects on plants and other species and features greatly as has occurred on the Long Point peninsula where predators and other controls no longer exist.
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