Long Point Environmental Folio, Chapter 3 J.G. Nelson and K.L. Wilcox, Editors, 1996

Human History of the Long Point Area*

Susan Dakin and Andrew Skibicki

*This Chapter is largely derived from Dakin, S. and Skibicki, A. 1994. "Human History of the Long Point Area" Long Point Environmental Folio Series. Working Paper #6. Heritage Resources Centre, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario.

Paleo-Indians

Southern Ontario became accessible to human occupation after 12,000 - 11,500 B.P. (Before Present) following the withdrawal of the Wisconsin ice sheet and the recession of the resulting large glacial lakes (Ellis and Deller 1990). The earliest, well-documented human occupants were Paleo-Indians, a nomadic people with a communal life-style centered mainly upon hunting wild game and gathering wild plants. Early Paleo-Indians appear to have entered southern Ontario just before 11,000 B.P. and established a culture which apparently persisted until about 10,400 B.P. (Figure 1).

Figure 3.1 Early Paleo-Indian Sites and Chert Outcrops (adapted from Dakin and Skibicki, 1994)

In southern Ontario, only the stone tools and stone debris of early Paleo-Indian technology have survived. Early Paleo-Indian stone projectile points are distinguished by grooves or "flutes"that begin at the base of the point on one or, more commonly, both faces (Figure 2). This type of fluting is believed to have facilitated the hafting of the point to a wooden shaft. Points were usually made by chipping and flaking high-grade stone materials, such as flints and similar rocks such as cherts which were obtained from bedrock outcrops, rather than from glacial till.

Figure 3.2 Artifacts Found in the Long Point Area (from Ellis and Deller, 1990; Spence et al. 1990; Ellis et al. 1990; Fox, 1990 and Dodd, et al., 1990)

Early Archaic

The Early Archaic people who followed the Late Paleo Indians used somewhat different stone tools (Figure 2). They tended to settle along the shores of the ancestral Great Lakes, the levels of which were much lower than today. As a result, many of these sites, like Late Paleo-Indian sites, are probably currently under water. Early Archaic sites tend to be more numerous in the vicinity of Lake Erie than in regions further north (Figure 3) (Ellis et al. 1990). Settlements along lake shorelines provided favourable access to large populations of fish and waterfowl. By about 8,000 B.P. the forest vegetation of southern Ontario became predominantly deciduous, similar to today's, and thus also probably richer in exploitable species such as deer and squirrel.

The Early Woodland

The Early Woodland period (Figure 4) is distinguished from the Archaic by the appearance of ceramics or pottery, and is subdivided into the Meadowood Complex (ca. 900 - 400 B.C.) and the Middlesex Complex (ca. 450 - 0 B.C.). Two distinctive features of the Meadowood Complex are thick, relatively crude ceramics or pottery made by coil construction and "Trapezoidal" gorgets (Figure 2). Other notable features include the liberal use of red ochre in burials, tubular ceramic pipes, fire making kits utilizing iron pyrites, and copper ornaments. There was still a strong reliance on deer hunting, fishing and nut gathering (Spence et al. 1990).

The Middle Woodland

The Middle Woodland period from ca. 300 B.C. to A.D. 700 is distinguished by the appearance of decorated ceramics (Figure 2). The period is subdivided into the Saugeen Complex and the Couture Complex (Spence et al. 1990). The Saugeen Complex gives the first archaeological evidence for human occupation of the Long Point peninsula. Various Middle Woodland seasonal campsites and fishing stations were located in the shallow bays opening up to Long Point Bay, perhaps to exploit spawning fish (Figure 5). Due to the rapidly changing geomorphology of the Point, many of these sites are being eroded or inundated by water.

Figure 3.3 Some Early Archaic Sites (adapted from Dakin and Skibicki, 1994)

Figure 3.4 Early Woodland Sites (adapted from Dakin and Skibicki, 1994)

A number of Middle Woodland campsites are located further inland (Figure 5) perhaps serving as winter habitation sites (Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Recreation 1994). A Saugeen burial site has also been found to the east of Long Point at the mouth of the Grand River at Port Maitland (Figure 5). On the site were buried two Middle Woodland individuals, an adult male and a child. The adult grave contained elaborate ornamental and tool items, including an incised antler comb and a ceramic pipe, but no ceramic vessels. The child's grave contained a number of projectile points, bone tools, and other items (Spence et al. 1990).

Figure 3.5 Some Middle Woodland Sites (adapted from Dakin and Skibicki, 1994)

The Middle Woodland - Late Woodland Transition

The Middle Woodland to Late Woodland transition period (ca. A.D. 600 - 900) defines a series of social and technological changes in southern Ontario that eventually led to the appearance of agriculture and village life by the tenth century (Fox 1990).

The Woodland Complex known as Princess Point is well represented in the central Grand River Valley (Figure 2). It is represented at Long Point by the Varden Site near the tip of the peninsula (Figure 6), and by the remains of a shaman and his "medicine bag" including bone tubes and small mammal skulls (Fox and Molto 1994).

Figure 3.6 Some Middle to Late Woodland Sites (adapted from Dakin and Skibicki, 1994)

Based on an analysis of its ceramics, the Varden site probably dates from ca. A.D. 750 - 918 and represents the remains of a seasonal fishing station used from the late spring to the early summer (MacDonald 1986). Burbot is prominent among the site? fishbone remains which also include other freshwater species such as yellow perch and sturgeon, and various duck, shorebird, songbird, and eagle remains. Other faunal remains include turtles, snakes, deer, chipmunks, muskrats and mice. Remnant seeds indicate that raspberries, sumac, strawberries, elderberries, wild plum and grapes were consumed by the inhabitants (Fox 1990).

Ontario Iroquoian

The key feature of the Early Iroquoian period (ca A.D. 900-1300) is the gradual development of agriculture centered around corn, squash and beans. This change is thought to have been gradual rather than rapid because there is evidence of a continued strong reliance on gathering wild food. The Reid site near Port Rowan features a number of burials. On the Reid Site was located a small, double-palisaded village containing six longhouses covering an area of 0.4 hectares. Buried here were two groups of seven and two persons. Wright (1978) suggests that one of the groups may have been a family unit. Fish remains dominate the animal bones found at the site. Remains of other animals include bear, deer, turtle and numerous small mammals. Floral remains include corn, sumac, hawthorn, butternut, wild cherry, walnut, and acorn (Wright 1978).

The Neutral Iroquoian

The Neutral confederation evolved from the subsistence-settlement patterns established in the Early Iroquoian period (Figure 7). Geographically dispersed populations existed within the Carolinian Forest zone, with numerous villages in the Niagara region and, by the 15th century, in the London area. Population estimates during this time vary between 12,000 to 40,000 for 28 to 40 settlements, with the lower figure representing the later decimation caused by European diseases and famine. The Neutral Iroquoian period (1400 - 1651) has been divided into three eras: the Prehistoric era (1400 - 1500); the Protohistoric era (1500 - 1615); and the Historic era (A.D. 1615 - 1650).

From the 1630's onward, the New York Iroquois, armed with Dutch muskets, became the dominant Native power in the area. French-Huron trade routes were increasingly disrupted by Iroquois raiding parties and Huron settlements were periodically raided, with many prisoners being taken back to Iroquois lands. Between 1647 and 1651, the Iroquois were at war with the Neutrals.

Figure 3.7 Some Neutral Indian Sites (Adapted from Dakin and Skibicki, 1994)

The Neutral defeat in 1651 ended the Neutral confederation and resulted in the dispersal of its peoples, many of whom were incorporated with the Iroquois as their prisoners (Heidenreich 1990). Other survivors joined the remaining Hurons and Petuns, migrated westward, and established the Wyandot Nation (Barrett 1977).

Early European Exploration

By 1653, with the dispersal of the Neutral peoples, the entire northern shore of Lake Erie, including Long Point, was without permanent settlement, although the Iroquois frequently used the area for beaver hunting (Barrett 1977; Heidenreich 1990). The area may also have been used as a periodic hunting ground by the Algonquians. Rival hunting groups and war parties used Long Point as a campground and portage point while traveling along the north shore of Lake Erie. Local legends claim a battle between the Wyandot nation and the Seneca people occurred near the "Carrying Place" portage at Long Point between 1700 and 1710 (Barrett 1977).

Early Euro-American Settlement in the Long Point Region

With the American Revolution, and the United States' newly won independence, the Long Point area was settled, beginning in the 1780's, by United Empire Loyalists from the United States. John Graves Simcoe was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada in 1791 and he encouraged Loyalists to settle "The Long Point Country"(Department of Lands and Forests 1963).

The earliest settlers arrived by boat, and soon cleared land and made their homes near the Lake Erie shore and along accessible creeks and rivers (Howes 1985). Arriving from New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York and the New England states, Loyalists chose the western part of Norfolk County, bordering Long Point Bay, to clear and cultivate land for agriculture (Howes 1985) (Figure 8).

The land in Norfolk was ideally suited for settlement, "owing to the large proportion of plains which is found to be easily brought into a state of cultivation, and other parts ... with excellent timber for fencing, building etc."(land surveyor Thomas Welch 1797, in Howes 1985, 14). The natural hay meadows, plains interspersed with woodland, adjacent sheltered anchorages, accessible even to large vessels of the day, and a mild climate created favourable local conditions. These led eager newcomers to settle the area before it was surveyed and while it was still isolated from even the nearest settlements (Department of Lands and Forests 1963).

Figure 3.8 Norfolk County: the First Settlers (adapted from Dakin and Skibicki, 1994)

Towns and Villages

Saw mills and grist mills played an important role in the early settlement and economy of the region, and provided a focal point around which villages grew (Department of Lands and Forests 1963, Barrett 1977, Howes 1985). The location of the first local mill is uncertain; family accounts in both the Ryerse-Ryerson and Backhouse families lay claim to being the first. The Backhouse grist mill, still standing in Walsingham Township, remains a fine example of grist mills of the time (Figure 8). The old mill and other historic buildings and technological improvements can be seen today at the Backus Mills Conservation Area.

Agriculture

Wheat continued to be the dominant crop throughout the 1800's. By the 1880's, however, competition from western prairie wheat growers increased, and barley, oats, and corn became the major crops in Norfolk County (Wilcox 1993). A small fruit farming industry was set up in the area before 1866. Vineyards and peach orchards were scattered along Long Point, but when the Long Point Company purchased land on the peninsula in 1866, further cultivation ceased (Wilcox 1993). Livestock continued to range at large on the peninsula until 1870. By the closing decade of the nineteenth century, mixed farming was the dominant agricultural activity in the area near the peninsula, and agriculture continued to be the primary economic activity.

The Iron Ore Industry

For a brief time during the nineteenth century, a small but profitable iron ore industry operated in the Long Point area. In 1818, near Normandale (Figure 9), John Mason built an iron smelter to process local deposits of bog iron ore (Barrett 1977). The smelter collapsed later in the year, and Mason died soon after. In 1821, a group of Americans bought Mason's interests, and with the furnace prospering, the site became the village of Normandale, attaining a population of about 750 (Howes 1985). No other foundry in western Ontario manufactured stoves, kettles, pots, pans, horseshoes and ploughs. The company's products were sold as far away as Kingston, Montreal and Chicago. What became known as the Van Norman furnace operated in the Long Point area until 1847, when ore supplies were reduced and the continued operation of the furnace became unprofitable (Wilcox 1993). This was the end of the first large-scale industrial development in the area. This industry, although relatively short-lived, had a substantial impact on the landscape. Wood was collected and burned to make charcoal fuel for the smelting furnace (Beazley and Nelson 1993).

Lumbering

Except as a by-product of settlers clearing land, commercial lumbering was limited in the Long Point region before 1840 (Barrett 1977). Big Creek and its tributaries were the primary transportation route for most of the logs and sawn lumber (Barrett 1977). By 1845 the first lumber was exported from Norfolk County. Port Royal, at the mouth of Big Creek became an important timber shipping centre (Barrett 1977) (Figure 9). The logging of the substantial pine and oak forests was so intense that by the mid-1860's the best timbers were gone, and by 1880, even local demand could not be met.

Figure 3.9 Early Industry, Transport and Commerce in the Long Point Area (adapted from Dakin and Skibicki, 1994)

When forests on the mainland began to dwindle by 1860, Long Point peninsula itself began to be cleared. The damage there was apparently quite profound. Miles of shoreline disappeared and large blowouts resulted when ridges were cleared (Barrett 1977). By 1900, forested lands in the Long Point region generally had been reduced to 11 percent (Beazley and Nelson 1993).

Fishing

After 1853, fishing as a commercial enterprise began to increase in the waters off Long Point. In the 1850's and 1860's, less than a dozen fisherman reportedly earned some sort of living from fishing in Norfolk County (Craig 1993). By 1868, Canada's Department of Marine and Fisheries had started monitoring fish harvests (Wilcox 1993).

Commercial fishing underwent slow but continual growth along the north shore of Lake Erie during the late 1800's (Craig 1993). Commercial operations peaked between 1896 and 1905, when up to 27 seines were licensed. Lake trout, whitefish, herring, pike and walleye were important species (Wilcox 1993). Recreational fishing in the modern sense was all but unheard of until the 1900's.

The Long Point Company and Conservation

As human settlement in other parts of Ontario and New York increased, a strong market developed for fresh bird meat. Enterprising local and outside hunters began to shoot vast numbers of migrating passenger pigeons as well as ruffed grouse, wild turkey, ducks, and other waterfowl along the north Lake Erie shore to meet consumer demands. Long Point's waterfowl populations were soon threatened by this uncontrolled activity. Large scale timber harvesting depleted vast tracts of the region's original forest cover and, by 1860, began to affect the peninsula itself (Barrett 1977).

In 1866, 6044 hectares of land on the peninsula were sold by the province to the private Long Point Company. The Company introduced private policing and protection of its natural resources. The Company members, initially seven in number, were avid hunters and outdoorsmen. Through its Charter, the Company controlled issuance of licenses to hunt, trap and fish on its property. Spring duck hunting was banned and fall hunting could not start before September 1 of each year. Other properties on the peninsula, such as Ryerson's Island, were soon purchased by the Company so that by 1871 only the tip of Long Point and much of the Anderson Property (Figure 9) were exempt from its jurisdiction (Barrett 1977).

Today, the Long Point Company properties encompass critical marshland habitat on the Point. The long history of private ownership and regulated use of the area for outdoor activities, including limited access, has done much to preserve Long Point in its natural state (Skibicki 1993). In 1979 the Company arranged for transfer of large blocks of its holdings to the Canadian Wildlife Service for protection and sustainable use of waterfowl habitat in particular and the environment or ecosystem more generally.

Lake Transportation

The Long Point peninsula always presented a major obstacle to ships and other lake-going traffic. Early travelers -the natives, traders and missionaries- portaged across the base of the Point. As large vessel shipping and water transport activities on the Great Lakes increased in the 1800's, ships were forced to go around Long Point. Numerous lives and expensive cargo, much of it American, were lost in trying to navigate the sometimes turbulent waters off Long Point (Department of Lands and Forests 1963).

In order to allow for more direct access for lake-going traffic into Inner Long Point Bay, plans were drawn up in the early 1830's to build a canal near the base of Long Point. The canal project was abandoned in 1833, when a strong storm, possibly acting on a small existing dredged canal, opened up a large natural channel in the same location (Figure 9). With higher than average water levels on Lake Erie, the channel served for a number of years as a throughway to the Inner Bay before eventually being filled and closed off by another storm in 1895. To the east, a second channel was opened by a storm in 1865 and lasted until 1906. The wooden lighthouse which was built near this channel in 1879 still stands near the entrance to the present Long Point Provincial Park (Figure 9) (Barrett 1977).

Land Travel

Various roads within the Long Point region began as trails used for centuries by native people. Improvement of the paths through widening and removal of windfall began by 1795, so that they were passable by sleigh or wagon (Department of Lands and Forests 1963). The major road in the vicinity was built by 1791, running east-west from Brantford through Waterford and Simcoe.

By 1804, the government had allocated money for improving public roads in the province, including a "highway" across the district. Towards the end of the first decade of the 19th century, surveys were undertaken to develop even more roads, although many could not be maintained as passable routes (Department of Lands and Forests 1963).

While roads continued to develop throughout the region, it was not until 1835 that improvements in roadbuilding technology began. At first planks, and later gravel were applied to main roads, so that by 1850 fairly wide and relatively smooth all-weather roads carried people and goods around the region. Tolls were frequently imposed on travelers to pay for the costs of road maintenance. Almost all the improved roads of the 1850's exist today as paved Provincial Highways or County Roads. Throughout this time, direct access to much of the Point was still by boat. It was not until the next century that a permanent link between the peninsula and the mainland was in place. This causeway or road was built from the mainland across the marsh to Long Point in 1928.

By the end of the 1800's, the landscape of the Long Point region was radically different from that of a century before. Increasing industrialization and improvements in technology throughout the nineteenth century allowed settlers to exploit the area's vast natural resources and change the face of the land. Forests were cut to provide timber, fuel and clear land for cultivation, homesteading and ore extraction. Rivers and steams were fished and harnessed for transport and power. Technological advancements in agriculture ensured improved production.

Transportation improvements provided for increased mobility and communication in the once isolated hinterland. Much of the Long Point peninsula, however, remained as it had been for previous centuries. Limited transportation access and the efforts of the Long Point Company ensured that Long Point retained its relatively undisturbed and wild qualities.

Industrial Development

Natural gas drilling and extraction in the Long Point area began early in the 20th century. Between 1918 and 1934, the Dominion Gas Company drilled on the Long Point peninsula under a ten-year lease with the Long Point Company. By 1958, the Long Point Company established its own oil and gas business in order to control the profits from this resource, and to monitor and deal with the effects of the industry on the other natural resources of the Point (Barrett 1977). Offshore wells in the general area supplied over 55% of Ontario's natural gas production in 1986, while on-shore wells supplied almost 20% (Wilcox 1993).

Perhaps the major industrial development in the region has been the establishment of three major industries at nearby Nanticoke, east of Long Point and Port Dover in the 1970's. Ontario Hydro constructed a large, coal powered generating station there. Shortly afterwards, a steel processing plant and a fuel refinery were established in the same general location. Not all of the substantial economic benefits envisioned to result from these industries have developed as yet, but the industries do employ thousands of people, many of whom commute from Hamilton and other nearby places.

Conservation of Built Heritage

The governments of Canada and the province of Ontario have recognized the rich heritage of the Long Point region. In order to commemorate some of the people, places and events that have contributed to this heritage, plaques have been erected at various locations. These plaques tell the stories of notable people, significant places and memorable events so that newcomers and visitors to the area can learn about the landscape in which they find themselves (Figures 10 and 11). More could be done however, to study and understand the fascinating human history of the Long Point area and to bring its special qualities to the attention of residents and especially visitors or tourists to the area.

Figure 3.10 Location of Provincial Historical Plaques (adapted from Dakin and Skibicki, 1994)

Figure 3.11 Locations of Federal Historic Plaques (adapted from Dakin and Skibicki, 1994)

The built heritage of the Long Point area has been the object of some regional and local initiatives. Under the Ontario Heritage Act (1975) properties can be designated by Local Architectural Conservation Advisory Committees (LACACs) in recognition of their contribution to local heritage. A number of properties have been and continue to be designated. Local groups, such as the University Women's Club of Norfolk County, have compiled a list of important or interesting architectural buildings and a record of local history (Figure 12) (Howes 1985). The resulting book serves as a detailed tour-guide, complete with pictures and historical narrative, highlighting the unique history of many of the people and places of the Long Point region.

Figure 3.12 Heritage Buildings of the Long Point Region (See accompanying list) adapted from Dakin and Skibicki, 1994)

Heritage Buildings (Figure 12)

(from Dakin and Skibicki, 1994; source: Heritage Buildings of Norfolk, Howes, 1985)

Walsingham Townhship

Backus Conservation Area - Port Rowan

1. Backhouse Mill (later Backus Mill)

In 1798 a grist mill was built near an existing sawmill, of Norfolk pine. The mill was overlooked by American troops when they were on a mill-burning raid in the area in 1814. The mill remained in the possession of the Backhouse family until the Big Creek Conservation Authority purchased the property in 1956; today the mill is owned by the Long Point Region Conservation Authority where demonstrations of pioneer milling are giver. Nearby is the largest tract of Carolinian forest (651 acres or 260 hectares) in Canada, the Backus Woods.

2. John Backhouse Home

The grandson of John Backhouse, who established the mill, built this home in ca. 1853 when he ran the mill and did lumbering in the area.

3. Cherry Valley School

An octagonal brick school built before approximately1866, this building was originally in Townsend Township and was used until 1929. A common practice at the time was to build a schoolhouse on land with a farmer? consent and transfer the land legally at a later date. The school was moved to the Conservation Area in 1982 and reconstructed.

Charlotteville Township

4. St. Williams Anglican Church, St. Williams

A few outer changes have been made to this approximately 1866 church which was added to in 1930. It is maintained completely by the congregation.

5. Daniel Abile McCall House, St. Williams

Local timbers and bricks were used in the construction of this typical Gothic Revival farmhouse, ca. 1865. McCall was grandson to Loyalist settlers Duncan McCall and Hannah Shearer. The business they established here continued for four generations (until the 1960s) and was known for fine furniture and boat building.

6. Romaine Van Norman House, Normandale

Romaine ran the family furnace from 1840-1852, when it ceased to operate, and built this house, ca. 1842, an example of a Regency cottage, with Classical Revival front.

7. Union Hotel, Normandale

Photo 3.1 Union Hotel, Normandale

This authentic 19th century hotel, ca. 1833, was built about 12 years after the establishment of the Van Norman Foundry. It served as the social centre of the community and provided a ballroom for gala events. Designated under the Ontario Heritage Act by Twp. of Delhi Local Architectural Conservation Advisory Committee (LACAC).

8. Rebecca Anderson House, Vittoria

This house was constructed ca. 1852 by the daughter of Loyalists Walter and Mary Anderson.

9. Christ Church, Vittoria

This church was built ca. 1852 by the second Baptist congregation in Ontario. It was the first Baptist Congregation in Norfolk County.

10. Vittoria Baptist Church

11. St Andrew's Presbyterian Church, Vittoria

This church was built ca. 1845 on one acre of land donated by Rebecca Anderson. In 1925 it became a United Church

Woodhouse Township

12. Edward Ryerse House, Port Ryerse

Edward owned the first brickyard in Port Ryerse in 1835, and is credited with making the first harbour improvement and building the first pier and warehouses in Port Ryerse. He built this house ca. 1849 on land granted to Samuel Ryerse in 1796.

13. Issac Vail House, near Port Ryerse

This rural house was built in approximately 1852 by the son of Loyalist Issac Vail Sr. William Pope lived here from 1869 to 1902 and it remained with his family until 1922. A keen naturalist, some of Pope's best paintings were done here in the 1860s.

14. Isaac Gilbert House, near Port Dover

This late Neoclassical home was built in ca. 1843 by the son of Isaac Gilbert Sr., a Loyalist who arrived in 1799. It remains in the family (granddaughters), and was restored in 1962.

15. Clark and Street House, Port Dover

This Regency style house was built in ca. 1828 on land purchased soon after 1814 raid on Dover. Designated under the Ontario Heritage Act by Nanticoke LACAC.

16. Lewis Bowlby House, Port Dover

The grandson of Loyalist Thomas Bowlby built this house in ca. 1857 on land granted to Bowlby in the early 1800s. It was used as a girls's boarding school for some years in the late 1800s.

17. William Shand House, near Port Dover

William Shand built this house in ca. 1843 after arriving from Aberdeen Scotland. It remains in the family to this day.

18. James Walker House, near Simcoe

James Walker, one of the first white children born in the Long Point Settlement, had this house built in approximately 1825.

19. Joseph B. Culver House, Gore (near Simcoe)

This house built in about 1840, is currently occupied by the great, great grandson of its original owner. Designated under the Ontario Heritage Act by Simcoe LACAC

20. Hiram Bowlby House, Gore

This house was built in ca. 1848 for the grandson of Thomas Bowlby, an early settler. Five generations of descendants have lived in the house.

21. Alfred Ades House

This house was built in ca. 1858 by a local miller. Designated under the Ontario Heritage Act by Simcoe LACAC

22. Thomas Mulkins Residence, Simcoe

This house was built in about 1845 and is one of the earliest brick buildings. Thomas Mulkins was a merchant and later postmaster, and the building operated as post office from 1848 to 1878. It is now the Eva Brook Donly Museum, donated by Eva, a local artist, in 1941. Designated under the Ontario Heritage act by Simcoe LACAC.

23. & 24. Norfolk Count Courthouse, Simcoe

Almost demolished in the mid-1970's, this grouping of buildings (courthouse, jail, crown attorney's office and registry office) forms an exceptional example of county town buildings. The courthouse was built in ca. 1864. The jail built in ca. 1847 served as the town jail until 1978. Designated under the Ontario Heritage Act by Simcoe LACAC.

25. Duncan Campbell House, "Lynnwood" Simcoe

This Classical Revival style house built in ca. 1851-1858 now houses the Lynnwood Arts Centre. It is also a National Historic Site. Designated under the Ontario Heritage Act by the Simcoe LACAC.

Townsend Township

26. Bloomsburg Baptist Church, Bloomsburg

This church was built in ca. 1850 on land donated by William Kitchen.

27. James L. Green House, Waterford

This house was built in ca. 1847 for Green, a prominent businessman and owner of Waterford's first foundry, which manufactured various farm implements, including the Royal Royce Reaper which replaced the scythe. Designated under the Ontario Heritage Act by the Nanticoke LACAC.

28 Joseph Merritt House, Waterford

Built in ca. 1850 by Dr. J. Merritt, a prominent local doctor, who sold it by 1861. Designated under the Ontario Heritage Act by the Nanticoke LACAC.

29. Leonard Sovereign House, Waterford

This house was built in ca. 1842 for Sovereign, who influenced much of the early settlement and gradual development of Waterford

30. David Duncombe House, near Waterford

Built in ca. 1867 for Dr. Duncombe this typical fieldstone house was where he practiced medicine until 1887, after moving from Waterford to farm.

Work Cited

Barrett, H.B. 1977. Lore and Legends of Long Point Burns and MacEachern Ltd. Don Mills, Ontario.

Beazley, K. 1993. Forested Areas of Long Point: Landscape History and Strategic Planning MA Thesis. Department of Geography. University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario.

Beazley, K. and Nelson, J.G. 1993. Forested Areas of Long Point Region: Landscape History and Strategic Planning Long Point Environmental Folio Publication Series. (Nelson, J.G. and Lawrence, P.L. eds). Technical Paper 3. Heritage Resources Centre, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario.

Craig, B.E. 1993. Fisheries of Lake Erie and the Long Point Area: Past and Present Long Point Environmental Folio Publication Series. (Nelson, J.G. and Lawrence, P.L. eds). Technical Paper 4. Heritage Resources Centre, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario.

Dakin, S. and Skibicki, A. 1994. Human History of the Long Point Area Long Point Environmental Folio Series. (Nelson, J.G. and Lawrence, P.L. eds). Working Paper 6. Heritage Resources Centre, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario.

Department of Lands and Forests. 1963. Big Creek Valley Conservation Report Department of Lands and Forests. Conservation Authorities Branch. Toronto, Ontario.

Dodd, C.F., Poulton, D.R., Lennox, P.A., Smith, D.G., and Warrick, G.A. 1990. "The Middle Ontario Iroquoian Stage" In (Ellis, C.J. and Ferris, N. eds). The Archaeology of Southern Ontario to A.D. 1650 Occasional Publications of the London Chapter, Ontario Archaeological Society Inc., No.5. London, Ontario: 321-359.

Ellis, C.J., and Deller, D.B. 1990. "Paleo-Indians" In (Ellis, C.J. and Ferris, N. eds). The Archaeology of Southern Ontario to A.D. 1650 Occasional Publications of the London Chapter, Ontario Archaeologiccal Society Inc., No.5. London, Ontario: 37-63.

Ellis, C.J., Kenyon, I.T., and Spence, M.W. 1990. "The Archaic" In (Ellis, C.J. and Ferris, N. eds). The Archaeology of Southern Ontario to A.D. 1650 Occasional Publications of the London Chapter, Ontario Archaeological Society, No. 5. London, Ontario.

Fox, W.A. 1990. "The Middle Woodland to Late Woodland Transition" In (Ellis, C.J. and Ferris, N. eds). The Archaeology of Southern Ontario to A.D. 1650 Occasional Publications of the London Chapter, Ontario Archaeological Society, No.5. London, Ontario: 171-188.

Fox, W.A. and Molto, J.E. 1994. "The Shaman of Long Point" Ontario Archaeology 57: 23-44.

Fox, W.M. 1985. "The Cultural History of Long Point: An Interim Report" Kewa 85(2): 9-22.

Heidenreich, C.E. 1990. "History of the St. Lawrence-Great Lakes Area to A.D. 1650". (Ellis, C.J. and Ferris, N. eds). The Archaeology of Southern Ontario to A.D. 1650 Occasional Publications of the London Chapter, Ontario Archaeological Society, No.5. London, Ontario: 475-492.

Howes, H. 1985. Heritage Buildings of Norfolk Boston Mills Press, Erin Mills, Ontario

Lennox, P.A. and Fitzgerald, W.R. 1990. "The Cultural History and Archaeology of the Neutral Iroquoians" (Ellis, C.J. and Ferris, N. eds). The Archaeology of Southern Ontario to A.D. 1650 Occasional Publications of the London Chapter, Ontario Archaeological Society, No.5. London, Ontario: 405-456.

MacDonald, J.D.A. 1986. The Varden Site: A Multi-Component Fishing Station on Long Point, Lake Erie A report prepared for the Ontario Heritage Foundation and the Ministry of Culture and Communications under Archaeological Licence No. 83-22. MCTR Cultural Programmes Branch, Toronto, Ontario.

Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Recreation. 1994. Cultural Programmes Branch Update Archaeological Site Listing, London, Ontario.

Skibicki, A.J. 1993. The Long Point Region: An Institutional and Land Tenure History and Examination of Management Needs Long Point Environmental Folio Publication Series. (Nelson, J.G. and Lawrence, P.L. eds). Working Paper 3. Heritage Resources Centre, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario.

Spence, M.W., R.H. Pihl and Murphy, C.R. 1990. "Cultural Complexes of the Early and Middle Woodland Periods" In (Ellis, C.J. and Ferris, N. eds). The Archaeology of Southern Ontario to A.D. 1650 Occasional Publications of the London Chapter, Ontario Archaeological Society, No.5. London, Ontario: 125-169.

Wilcox, S. 1993. The Historical Economies of the Long Point Area Long Point Environmental Folio Publication Series. (Nelson, J.G. and Lawrence, P.L. eds). Working Paper 1. Heritage Resources Centre, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario.

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