Long Point Environmental Folio, Chapter 8 J.G. Nelson and K.L. Wilcox, Editors, 1996

Birds of the Long Point Area*

Ted Cheskey

*This chapter is largely derived from Cheskey, T. 1994. "Conservation of Significant Birds of the Long Point Area: Description, Issues and Direction" Long Point Environmental Folio Series. Technical Paper #6. Heritage Resources Centre, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario.

The Long Point area is perhaps the richest and most interesting area for birds in Southern Ontario and all of the Great Lakes Basin. Recent population declines of many native species have brought attention to bird conservation issues here and elsewhere in eastern North America. Populations of birds in the Long Point Biosphere Reserve and its hinterland have been in a state of flux and change to some extent through history. The disconcerting aspect of recent changes is that human activities appear to be responsible for a large proportion of the population declines. Furthermore, causes and consequences of these declines are poorly understood. What is known is that numerous song birds and other species which seasonally migrate between Ontario and parts of Latin America and the Caribbean basin are declining. This is due to a range of landscape and land use processes and activities that we should be able to control or change.

In considering the future of the Long Point area, the plight of song birds and innumerable other plants or animals for which song birds are indicators, should receive more attention. Managing for healthy and viable populations of native birds means managing for healthy ecosystems. Citizens, planners, and resource managers need to pay more attention to the value and ecological contribution of birds, as well as their economic importance.

The Long Point Bird Observatory

Birds, perhaps more than any other plants or animals, bring attention and recognition to the Long Point Area, and the Biosphere Reserve in particular. It would be remiss to commence a discussion about the birds of Long Point and vicinity without fully crediting the Long Point Bird Observatory for "putting Long Point on the bird map". The Long Point Bird Observatory (LPBO) is the oldest permanent bird observatory in North America. Established in 1960, the LPBO has field stations at the peninsula's tip, on a mid-peninsula dune ridge, and near the base of Long Point (see Figure 1). LPBO has monitored spring and fall migration of birds across the peninsula in a consistent and rigorous manner for over 30 years.

extra 8.0

LPBO owes its remarkable success and endurance to the work of hundreds of volunteers and a few very hard working staff. A non-profit, non-governmental organization, LPBO has not only managed to survive the economic downswings of the 1980s and the 1990s, but has done remarkably well in providing leadership in many initiatives and projects intended to broaden our knowledge of birds.

Birds of Long Point Region

Why Long Point is so Valuable to Birds?

o It has extremely rich and healthy forest bird communities, many of which include long distance migrants

o High numbers of forest interior species occur such as Barred Owl, Scarlet Tanager, Wood Thrush, Veery, and Ovenbird

o It has a high number of species preferring uncommon and restricted habitats such as Louisiana Waterthrush (wooded ravines), Prothonotary Warbler (deciduous swamp forest), and Cerulean Warbler (deciduous forest interior).

o Extremely rich and productive marshland bird communities are associated with the Big Creek, Long Point and Turkey Point areas e.g., Tern Colonies, Least Bittern

o Provincially significant populations of species occur at the northern edge of their ranges, e.g., Hooded Warbler, King Rail, Prothonotary Warbler

o High concentrations of rare species occur e.g., Red-shouldered Hawk, Hooded Warbler

o Long Point has one of the highest winter bird occurrences anywhere in eastern Canada, i.e., 100+ species observed in the Christmas Bird Counts

o Long Point is an internationally important staging/feeding area in spring and fall for many species, notably large numbers of migratory songbirds as well as waterfowl and shorebirds associated with the extensive marshes and shores of the Long Point and Turkey Point areas. For example, tens of thousands of Canvasbacks and Redheads use the marshes of the Inner Bay in both spring and fall, this has helped earn Long Point the distinction of a RAMSAR (The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) oversees the RAMSAR convention to which Canada is asignatory - This convention designates globally significant wetlands) site designation, one of only five such designations in Ontario

A checklist for the birds of the Long Point area, produced by LPBO (Fazio et al., 1985) identifies 331 species as having been observed in the Long Point area. Of these, some 173 species are known to breed or are suspected of breeding. If this area is expanded to all of Haldimand-Norfolk, the number increases to 187 species, which is approximately 80 percent of all species found breeding in Southern Ontario, (Cadman et al., 1987), and 90 percent of species known to breed in the south-western part of the province (Gartshore et al., 1987).

Figure 8.1 Long Point Bird Observatory Field Stations (from Cheskey, 1994)

These numbers are remarkable in themselves, and indicate the exceptional species richness of the Long Point Region's avifauna. The richness of the avifauna is paralleled in other taxa such as plants, herpetofauna, mammals and insects. For example, 34 species of herpetofauna occur in Haldimand-Norfolk, which is exceptional for any part of Southern Ontario, and include significant populations of extremely rare species such as Spotted Turtle, Black Rat Snake and Fowler's Toad (Gartshore et al., 1987). For more details on herpetofauna, see Chapter 11.

Extirpations and Additions in the Breeding Birds of Long Point World Biosphere Reserve

Over the last century, seven species have been extirpated from the Long Point area, while twelve have been added (Tables 1 and 2). Most of the extirpations are directly related to human activities such as over hunting, habitat destruction, or pesticide use. Forest clearing in the 19th century corresponds with the disappearance of Wild Turkey, Passenger Pigeon, and Northern Bobwhite. Game birds such as Wild Turkeys were likely wide-spread in the presettlement landscape, but were pushed into "islands of habitat", as much of their habitat was converted to pasture and crop land, facilitating exploitive harvesting. Populations were unable to recover. Reduced populations of Northern Bobwhite were more susceptible to severe winters.

Forest-dwelling species had their habitats reduced to fragments in a period of 30 to 50 years. Grassland and savanna species such as Eastern Meadowlark, Eastern Bluebird and Loggerhead Shrike may have increased after some of the initial forest clearing.

Table 8.1 Some Species Lost or Extirpated Since European Settlement (from Cheskey, 1994)

Species Comments
Passenger Pigeon harvesting, habitat destruction
Wild Turkey* harvesting, habitat destruction
Northern Bobwhite habitat destruction, climat, harvesting
Piping Plover beach recreation, Ring-billed Gull & Raccoon predation
Osprey DDT
Bald Eagle* DDT, but now re-introduced
Loggerhead Shrike unknown

*These species have been re-introduced to the area

Table 8.2 Some Species Added Since European Settlement (from Cheskey, 1994)

Species Comments
Mute Swan exotic -escaped and expanding rapidly
Little Gull expanding into North America from Europe
Grey Partridge exotic-released
Ring-necked Pheasant exotic - released - status unknown
Ring-billed Gull first nesting in Region in 1945; nesting on Point since mid 1960's
Carolina Wren northward range expansion
European Starling exotic - entered Region in early 1900's
Blue-winged Warbler northward range expansion in early 1900's
Yellow-rumped Warbler disjunct population likely due to maturation of conifer plantations
Dark-eyed Junco disjunct population likely due to maturation of conifer plantations
House Finch exotic - entered the region in the early 1980's
House Sparrow exotic - entered the region in the late 1880's

However, the intensification of agriculture, and the expansion of cultivated land likely erased most of these increases. For the Loggerhead Shrike, an endangered species throughout much of its range, its historical status and the causes for its extirpation are unclear, but likely connected to these events.

New species are from three distinct sources: 1) accidental or deliberate introductions; 2) northward range expansion; and 3) colonization of planted and natural conifer and pine-oak stands by species of northern affinity. The extent to which the presence of northern species is an inheritance of pre-European settlement patterns or of the introduction of plantations of conifers, or both, is unknown. It is possible that these species have always occurred on the Norfolk Sand plains; for example in New York State, the Hermit Thrush breeds in the pine barrens of Long Island. Other "northerly" species with disjunct populations in the Haldimand-Norfolk area include Solitary Vireo, Northern Goshawk, Golden-crowned Kinglets, Purple Finch, Dark-eyed Junco and Yellow-rumped Warbler.

Perhaps even more significant are the southerly species that not only occur on or near the northern extreme of their ranges in Haldimand-Norfolk, but also have substantial populations in the Long Point region. The largest Canadian populations of Hooded Warbler and Louisiana Waterthrush are found in Haldimand-Norfolk. Judging from the Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Ontario, this region may also harbour the main Canadian populations of other southerly species including: Prothonotary Warbler, Cerulean Warbler (which also has a separate significant population in Eastern Ontario), Blue-winged Warbler and Blue-gray Gnatcatcher.

Tables 3 and 4 are lists of significant breeding birds of the Haldimand-Norfolk area which are moderately to highly vulnerable to human activities. All of these species are to a certain extent habitat specialists.

Table 8.3 Significant Breeding Birds of Haldimand-Norfolk (from Cheskey, 1994)

Species number of locations

Natural Areas Inventory(NA)

Northern Goshawk 4
Red-breasted Nuthatch 29
Winter Wren 11
Golden-crowned Kinglet 15
Hermit Thrush 17
Solitary Vireo 30
Yellow-rumped Warbler 8
Dark-eyed Junco 6
Purple Finch 9

Table 8.4 Species with Southern Affinities (from Cheskey, 1994)

Species number of locations
King Rail 10
Common Barn Owl 1
Chuck-will's-widow 5
Red-bellied Woodpecker 6
Acadian Flycatcher 8
Tufted Titmouse 3
White-eyed Vireo 1
Prothonotary Warbler 9
Hooded Warbler 65
Louisiana Waterthrush 26
Kentucky Warler 2
Yellow-breasted chat 4

Species marked with an asterick in Table 5 are limited to only a few habitat types (Figures 2,3, and 4). They are therefore especially subject to dislocation or loss due to logging, clearing or other human activities that remove, modify or fragment the particular habitat that they depend upon. Table 5 provides a summary of avian significance by habitat requirements, and Table 6 is a summary of avian significance of different natural areas in the region.

Table 8.5 Significant Breeding Birds of Haldimand-Norfolk (from Cheskey, 1994)

Species Frequency/Abundance (1) Area Sensitivity Habitat Specialty (2) Vulnerability
Pied-Billed Grebe 8/14 unknown *marsh/wetland moderate
American Bittern 1/1 moderate to high *marsh/wetland high - (unconm. in S.W. Ont.)
Least Bittern 4/8 moderate to high *marsh/wetland high - (rare in S.W. Ont.)
Great Blue Heron 49/396 moderate to high woodland - tall trees high- disturbance
Bald Eagle 4 high woodland - remote high
Sharp-Shinned Hawk 14/14 high *forest interior moderate to high
Cooper's Hawk 15/16 high *forest interior moderate to high
Northern Goshawk 4/4 high forest interior high
Red-Shouldered Hawk 23/28 high *forest interior moderate to high
Broad-Winged Hawk 45/47 high *forest interior moderate to high
Northern Bobwhite 2/2 high *savanna high
Upland Sandpiper 7/12 high *grasslands moderate to high
Common Tern 1/1 low *beach high - disturbance, predation
Forster's Tern 2/10 high *marshlands moderate to high
Black Tern 3/38 high *marshlands moderate to high
Barred Owl 3/4 high *forest interior high
Northern Saw-Whet Owl 2/2 moderate to high *forest interior moderate to high
Chuck-Wills-Widow 5/5 high *forest interior high
Whip-Poor-Will 7/14 high *savanna/oak forest moderate to high
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker 45/79 moderate to high *forest interior moderate
Pileated Woodpecker 78/97 high forest interior moderate to high
Acadian Flycatcher 8/8 high *forest interior high
Winter Wren 11/11 moderate to high *forest interior moderate to high
Blue Gray Gnatcatcher 67/97 high *forest interior - edge moderate to high
Hermit Thrush 17/27 moderate *sand plains forest interior moderate-high
Brown Thrasher 45/68 moderate-high *savanna-edge scrub moderate-high (declining)
Solitary Vireo 30/49 moderate *sand plains forest interior unknown
Yellow Throated Vireo 108/165 moderate to high *forest and forest edge moderate to high
Black-Throated Green Warbler 45/75 high *forest interior moderate to high
Blackburian Warbler 17/24 high *sand plains forest interior high
Pine Warbler 72/180 high *forest interior moderate to high
Prairie Warbler 13/17 unknown *early successional pine high
Cerulean Warbler 48/87 high *forest interior high
Black-and-White Warbler 27/35 high *forest interior moderate to high
Prothonotary Warbler 9/18 high *forest interior high
Northern Waterthrush 51/108 moderate *forest interior moderate to high
Louisiana Waterthrush 55/79 high *forest interior high
Hooded Warbler 65/133 high forest interior - tree filled gaps high
Rufous Sided Trowhee 150/310 moderate to high savanna and forest moderate to high (declining)
Henslow's Sparrow 1 high grassland high (endangered)
Grasshopper's Sparrow 6/25 moderate *grassland moderate to high

1 Numbers are based on the total numbers given for frequency i.e., the number of different locations where a species was observed - and abundance i.e. the total number of individuals observed as reported by McCracken, in Gartshore et al., 1987, Appendix 1.)

2 All of these species are to a certain extent specialists. Hounsel (1989), classified species by vulnerability and habitat use on a matrix. Woodland habitat was classified by 12 stages of deciduous, coniferous and mixed forest. Species indicated with an asterik are restricted to few habitat types based on Hounsel, and others.

Figure 8.2 The Distribution of Rare Forest Interior Bird Species in the Long Point Area (from Cheskey, 1994)

Figure 8.3 The Distribution of Rare Birds of Prey in the Long Point Area (from Cheskey, 1994)

Figure 8.4 Distribution of Rare Marsh and Savanna/Grassland Species in the Long Point Area (from Cheskey, 1994)

The Landscape Approach to Significance

Much of the significant habitat for birds is shown on Figure 5 as a landscape pattern. This pattern envelopes the core and supporting areas of high significance, and connects them to outlying natural areas through watershed corridors such as Big Creek and other natural linkages. The shaded areas are intended as estimates of the significant areas and are not intended to preclude the possible value of places outside the boundary .

In this sense the map is intended as the basis for more detailed landscape-level research, management and planning that recognizes the landscape pattern as the fundamental contributor to the conservation of the birds. In this case, the size of core areas, the clustering of core and supporting areas, and the connections, or potential connections, among the patches can be used to define the area of overall significance. Significance is enhanced by the relatively low level of human settlement and activity in much of the area.

Within the overall area or landscape, management and conservation efforts need to be focussed on filling in gaps and indentations within forest blocks through natural restoration, as well as enhancement of forest edges and wooded corridors between areas and along water courses. Strategies such as land acquisition, easements and agreements, retirement of marginal farmland, and incentives for management conducive to bird conservation are required.

Figure 8.5 Significant Bird Habitat within the Long Point Biosphere Reserve and Supporting Areas (from Cheskey, 1994)

Table 8.6 Summary of Avian Significance by Natural Area (from Cheskey, 1994)

Area Area (ha) # of Species # of area sensitive (1) # of Habitat Specialists # of Rare Species Threat Rating Significance Rating
1. Backus Woods 491 81 10 15 4 low highest
2. Big Creek Bend 119 53 1 4 0 low high
4. Courtland Swamp 659 77 6 9 3 high high
5. Cultus Forest 583 60 4 8 4 high high
6. Deer Creek Valley 323 72 8 9 3 high high
8. Fairground Forests 427 59 1 5 0 mod-high high
9. Langton Woods 145 46 3 4 2 mod-high mod-high
10. Little Otter Creek 338 61 5 5 2 mod-high high
11. Long Point 16,260 139 10 25 11 mod highest
12. St Williams 1213 96 19 22 7 mod highest
13. South Walsingham 729 98 21 19 11 mod-high highest
14. Venison Creek 342 69 9 9 3 mod-high high
A. Big Creek Proth. 140 49 1 1 1 high mod-high
B. Clear Creek Valley 647 41 2 2 1 high mod.
C. Courtland Trilliums 100 36 3 3 0 moderate mow-mod.
F. Wyecombe Swamp 170 46 3 4 1 high mod.
15. Delhi-Big Creek 279 71 8 8 2 high high
16. Lower Young Creek 123 59 8 6 2 moderate mod.
17. Monroe Landon's 72 40 3 4 2 high mod-high
18. Pine Grove Forest 37 33 4 4 2 high mod-high
20. Spooky Hollow 333 89 12 13 4 moderate highest
21. Trout Creek 237 62 9 6 2 high high
22. Turkey Point 2325 117 22 18 10 high highest
23. Vanessa Swamp 527 81 11 10 6 high highest
24. Walsh Forest 279 57 9 7 3 high mod-high
25. Windham Swamp 134 56 3 3 0 moderate mod.
G. Delhi Swamp 72 34 0 0 0 high low
H. La Salette Woods 22 32 2 2 0 moderate low
I. Lynnville Woods 43 34 1 1 0 low low-mod
K. Quance Bush 26 35 1 1 1 mod.-high low
M. Simcoe Lupines 66 0 3 4 0 low mod.
O. Vanessa Ponds 22 24 0 3 0 moderate low-mod
26. Nanticoke Slough 51 56 2 2 0 low-mod mod.
27. Nanticoke Heronry 23 35 1 1 0 mod-high high
28. Salem Rockland 70 44 0 3 0 high mod-high
29. Sanduck Floodplain 34 43 1 2 1 moderate mod.
30. Varency Woods 31 35 2 1 1 mod. low-mod
31. Waterford Ponds 23 32 0 0 0 mod-high low
32. Wilsonville Swamp 53 31 1 1 0 low-mod low-mod
Q. Black Creek Prairie 20 48 1 1 1 high mod.
R. Dog's Nest Slough 40 17 2 2 0 mod. mod.
S. Hay Creek C.A. 54 0 0 0 0 high low
T. Jarvis N.E. Woods 40 28 0 0 1 high low
U. Marburg Swamp 87 51 2 3 0 low-mod mod
V. Sandusk Creek 63 30 1 2 0 high low-mod
W. Spring Creek 39 0 0 0 0 low low-mod
X. Springvale Swamp 11 0 0 0 0 moderate low

1 Species counted for this column have a "high" rating on Table 6

2 Species counted for this catefory are indicated by an asterik in Table 6

Threats to Vulnerable Breeding Birds

Table 7 outlines some of the actions and processes that threaten the health of the bird communities of natural areas in the Long Point region.

Estimates of the degree of "threats" are based on the size and shape of the site, activities noted within each area, discussion with local naturalists and site visits.

Each area has its own collection of issues and stresses that threaten populations in different ways. In some cases, a threat to one vulnerable species, such as fairly intensive logging, could actually increase the population of another vulnerable species.

For this reason, the management of each area, and the activities within it, must be considered separately. However, some of the threats apply to almost all areas. In Table 7, a "threat rating" has been estimated for each area based on the vulnerability of the area's bird community, and the nature and extent of the threat.

Threat rating

1. HIGH: Long term viability of significant populations or functions threatened without mitigating action.

2. MODERATE: Viability of populations in danger only if threats escalate. Problems can be controlled.

3. LOW: Threats minor and controllable, pose minimal danger to vulnerable populations.

Photo 8.1 The Edge Effect from Housing and Farming in a Natural Area (Anonymous)

Summary

The landscape of the Long Point World Biosphere Reserve and its hinterland may be the most significant region for breeding birds in Southern Ontario. The wetlands and littoral habitats associated with the peninsulas are provincially and nationally significant as breeding and staging grounds for numerous species of conservation interest. Hinterland forest in the interior forms an impressive landscape of large, interconnected forest patches that maintain one of the largest concentrations of vulnerable, area sensitive and rare species of landbirds in Southern Ontario. The bird communities in this forested landscape may bear one of the closest resemblances to pre-European forest bird communities of all the current forest communities in Southern Ontario. Species of conservation interest cluster in the largest patches of natural forest on the Norfolk sand plains to the west of and including Turkey Point and Spooky Hollow.

Fragmentation of forest patches, house building within natural areas, logging, and the expansion of intensive agriculture threaten the future viability of significant populations in the hinterland forests. A landscape level plan and action is needed to promote the enhancement of connectivity among patches and landscapes through the creation and restoration of corridors.

Table 8.7 Nature of Threats, sorted by Priority for Natural Areas (From Cheskey, 1994)

Area Rural Residential Development Shape (edge) Gaps Within Logging Past and Present A.T.V.'s etc. drainage other Threat rating Significance
1. Backus Woods ` ` ` * * ` ` low highest
2. Big Creek Bend ` * ` * * ` ` low high
4. Courtland Swamp * ` ` * ` * ` high high
5. Cultus Forest * * * * ` ` ` high high
6. Deer Creek Valley * * ` * * ` ` high high
8. Fairground Forests * ` * * ` * ` high mod-high
9. Langton Woods * * ` * * ` ` moderate mod-high
10. Little Otter Creek * * ` * ` ` ` high mod-high
11. Long Point ` ` ` * * ` erosion, deer, boats, marinas, exotic species mod highest
12. St Williams ? ` ` * * ` ` high highest
13. South Walsingha, ? * * * ` ` ` mod-high highest
14. Venison Creek * * ` * ` ` ` mod-high high
15. Delhi-Big Creek * * ` * ` ` erosion-pollution high high
16. Lower Young Creek * ` ` * ` ` erosion moderate moderate
17. Monroe Landon's * ` ` * ` ` ` high mod-high
18. Pine Grove Forest ? ` ` * * ` ` high mod-high
20. Spooky Hollow * ` ` * ` ` ` mod-low highest
21. Trout Creek * * ` * ` ` ` high high
22. Turkey Point * ` ` * ` * boats, marinas, cottages, exotoc species high highest
23. Vanessa Swamp * * ` * ` ` ` high highest
24. Walsh Forest * * ` * ` ` ` high mod-high
25. Windham Swamp * ` ` * ` * ` moderate moderate
26. Nanticoke Slough ` ` ` * ` ` isolation mod-low moderate
27. Nanticoke Heronry ` ` ` * * ` ` mod-high high
28. Salem Rockland ? ` ` * * ` quarrying high mod-high
29. Sanduck Floodplain * ` ` * ` ` isolation moderate moderate
30. Varency Woods * ` ` * ` ` isolation mod low-mod
31. Waterford Ponds ` ` ` * * ` recreation mod-high low
32. Wilsonville Swamp * * ` * ` * ` mod-low low-mod
A. Big Creek Proth. ` ` ` * ` ` ` high mod-high
B. Clear Creek Valley * ` ` * ` ` pollution high moderate
C. Courtland Trilliums * ` ` * * ` ` moderate low-mod
F. Wyecombe Swamp ** ` ` * ` ` * high moderate
G. Delhi Swamp ? * * * ` ` "urban" low low-mod
H. La Salette Woods * ` ` * ` ` ` moderate low
I. Lynnville Woods * ` ` * ` ` isolation low low-mod
K. Quance Bush ` * ` * ` ` pollution-urban mod-high low
M. Simcoe Lupines * * ` * ` ` ` low moderate
O. Vanessa Ponds ` ` ` * ` ` small moderate low-mod
Q. Black Creek Prairie * * ` * * ` "urban" high moderate
R. Dog's Nest Slough * ` ` * ` ` isolation mod moderate
S. Hay Creek C.A. ? ` ` * * ` ` high low
T. Jarvis N.E. Woods * ` ` * ` ` ` high low
U. Marlburg Swamp * ` ` * ` ` grazing mod-low moderate
V. Sandusk Creek * ` ` * ` ` ` high low-mod
W. Spring Creek * ` ` * ` ` ` low low-mod
X. Springvale Swamp * ` ` * ` * ` moderate low

*I reviewer noted that unregulated use of ATV's is not allowed on Long Point - researchers and managers use them in a responsible manner.

Photo 8.2 Woodland Edge (Photographed by T. Cheskey)

Photo 8.3 Logging in Natural Areas (Anonymous)

Photo 8.4 Restoring a Prairie in Norfolk County (Anonymous)

Many local stakeholders need to become involved in specific projects aimed at restoring connectivity within the landscape by creating and restoring corridors among forest patches, and between landscapes. At the same time, large natural areas should be made larger in a way that maximizes the amount of available forest interior habitat. The forest interior habitat is probably the most important habitat for birds in the hinterland area of the Long Point Biosphere Reserve. A range of site-specific strategies are needed including land acquisition, easements and other agreements, retirement of marginal farmland, acquisition and restoration of key areas, stewardship, financial incentives and conservation -based management are required.

Work Cited

Cadman, M.D., Eagles, P.F.J., and Helleiner, F.M. (eds). 1987. Atlas of the breeding Birds of Ontario University of Waterloo Press, Waterloo, Ontario.

Cheskey, T. 1994. Significant Birds of the Long Point Region Long Point Environmental Folio Series. (Nelson, J.G. and Lawrence, P.L. eds). Technical Paper 6. Heritage Resources Centre. University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario

Fazio, V., Woodrow, T., Shepherd, D. 1985. A Seasonal Checklist of the Birds of the Long Point Areas Long Point Bird Observatory: Port Rowan, Ontario.

Gartshore, M.E., Sutherland, D.A., and McCracken, J.D. (eds). 1987. The Natural Areas Inventory of Haldimand Norfolk Simcoe, Ontario.

Hounsel, S.W. 1989. Methods for Assessing the Sensitivity of Forest BIrds and their Habitat to Transmission Line Disturbances Land Use and Environmental Planning Department Stations and Transmission Programs Group. Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario.

McCracken, J. 1987. "The Breeding Birds of Haldimand Norfolk" In (Gartshore et al. eds). The Natural Areas Inventory of Haldimand Norfolk Simcoe, Ontario.

Snyder, L.L. 1931. "The Birds of Long Point and Vicinity" In (L.L. Snyder and E.B.S. Logier eds). A Faunal Investigation of Long Point and Vicinity Norfolk Co., Ontario: 139-228.

Appendix 8

List of Scientifc Names of Birds Reported in Text

Common Name Scientific Name
Acadian Flycatcher Empidonax virescens
American Bittern Botaurus lentininosus
American Black Duck Anas rubripes
American Crow Covu brachyrhynchos
American Robin Turdus migratorius
Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocphalus
Baltimore Oriole lcterus galibula
Barred Owl Strix varia
Black and White Warbler Mniotilta varia
Black tern Chlidonias niger
Black-capped Chickadee Parus atricapillus
Black-throated Blue Warbler Dendroica caerulescens
Black-throated Green Warbler Dendroica virens
Blackbumian Warbler Dendroica fusca
Blue Gray Gnatcatcher Polioltila caerulea
Blue Jay Cyanocitta cristata
Blue-winged Warbler Vermivore pinus
Bobolink Polichonyx oryizivorus
Broad-winged Hawk Buteo platpterus
Brown Creeper Certhis americana
Brown Thrasher Toxostoma rufum
Brown-headed Cowbird Molothrus ater
Canada Goose Branta canadensis
Canada Warbler Wilsonia canadensis
Carolina Wren Thryothorus ludovicianus
Cerulean Warbler Dendroica cerulea
Chuck-Will's-Widow Caprimulgus carolinensis
Clay-coloured Sparrow Spizella pallida
Common Barn Owl Tyto alba
Common Grackle Quiscalus quiscule
Common Loon Gavia immer
Common Moorehem Gallinula chloropus
Common Tern Stema hirudo
Cooper's Hawk Accipiter cooperii
Dark-eyed Junco Junco hyernalis
Eastern Bluebird Sialia sialis
Eastern Kingbird Tyrannus tyrannus
Eastern Meadowlark Stumella magna
Eastern Wood Pewee Contopus virens
European Starling Stumis vularis
Forster's Tern Stema forsteri
Golden-crowned Kinglet Regalus satrapa
Golden-Winged Warbler Vermivora chrysoptera
Grasshopper Sparrow Ammodramus sacannarum
Gray Catbird Dumetella carolinensis
Gray Partridge Perdix perdix
Great Blue Heron Ardea herodias
Great Horned Owl Bubo virginianus
Green-winged Teal Annus crecca
Henslow's Sparrow Ammodramus henslowii
Hermit Thrush Catharus guttatus
Hooded Warbler Wilsonia citrina
House Finch Carpodacu mexicanus
House Sparrow Passer domesticus
House Wren Troglodytes aedon
Kentucky Warbler Oporonus formosus
King Rail Rallus elegans
Lark Sparrow Chondestes grammacus
Larks Alaudidae
Least Bittern Ixobrychus elixis
Little Gull Larus minutus
Loggerhead Shrike Lanius ludovicianus
Long-eared Owl Asio otus
Louisiana Waterthrush Seiurus motacilla
Magnolia Warbler Dendroica magnolia
Marsh Hawk Circus cyaneus
Marsh Wren Cistorthoris palustris
Mute Swan Cygnus olor
Nashville Warbler Veernmivora ruficapilla
Northern Bobwhite Colinus virginianus
Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentillis
Northern Saw-Whet Owl Aegolius acadicus
Northern Waterthrush Seiuris noveboracensis
Orchard Oriole Icterus spurius
Osprey Pandion haliaetus
Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapillus
Passenger Pigeon Ectopistes migratorius
Pied-billed Grebe Podilymbus podiceps
Pileated Woodpecker Drycopus pileatus
Pine Warbler Dendroica pinus
Piping Plover Charadrius melodus
Prarie Warbler Dendroica discolor
Prothonotary Warbler Prothonotaria citria
Purple Finch Carpodacus purpureus
Red-bellied Woodpecker Melaneerpes carolinus
Red-breasted Nuthatch Sitta canadensis
Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus
Red-shouldered Hawk Buteo lineatus
Red-tailed Hawk Buteo jamaicensis
Red-winged Blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus
Redhead Aythya collaris
Ring-billed Gull Larus delawarensis
Ring-necked Pheasant Phasianus colchicus
Rock Dove Columbia livia
Rose-breasted Grosbeak Pheacticus ludovicianus
Rufous-sided Towhee Pipilo erythrophthalmus
Scarlet Tanager Piranga olivacea
Sedge Wren Cistothrosus platensis
Sharp-shinned Hawk Accipiter striatus
Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus
Solitray Vireo Vireo solitarius
Song Sparrow Melospiza melodia
Swamp Sparrow Melospiza georgiana
Tree Swallow Tachycineta bicolor
Tufted Titmouse Parus bicolor
Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura
Upland Sandpiper Bartramia longicauda
Verry Catharus fuscescens
Virginia Rail Rallus limicola
Whip-Poor-Will Caprimulgus vociferus
White-eyed Vireo Vireo griseus
White-throated Sparrow Zonotrichia leucophrys
Wild Turkey Meleagris gallopaveo
Winter Wren Troglodytes troglodytes
Wood Thrush Hylocichia mustelina
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker Sphyrapicus varius
Yellow-Breasted Chat Icteria virens
Yellow-headed Blackbird Xanthrocephalus xanthocephalus
Yellow-rumped Warbler Cendroica coronata
Yellow-throated Vireo Vireo flavifrons
Yellow-throated Warbler Dendroica dominica